Volume 18, Issue 1 (2011)                   IQBQ 2011, 18(1): 19-41 | Back to browse issues page

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Tavassoli M M, Rezazadeh Langroodi R, Saremi Naeini D. Iran and India: A Survey on Link Roads and Trade (With Special Reference on Archaeological Evidences). IQBQ. 18 (1) :19-41
URL: http://eijh.modares.ac.ir/article-27-11801-en.html
1- University
2- دانشگاه زاهدان
3- دانشگاه
Abstract:   (5728 Views)
Archaeology is growing science that continues to discover the material remains of man; hence, it is the best evidence to understand human relations that too shows close co-operation between the neighboring countries, especially Iran and India (present Pakistan). Right from Bronze Age when man started building a better social organization, archaeology presents positive evidences for economic and technological cooperation to boost their living standards. In the case of Indian Sub-continent, the earlier rural evidences from Kili Gul Muhammad (Kili=Urdu word, stands for "Fort") , Zhob and Loralai valleys of Baluchistan show a continuous growth pattern until they reach to mature stage of Indus Archaeology is growing science that continues to discover the material remains of man; hence, it is the best evidence to understand human relations that too shows close co-operation between the neighboring countries, especially Iran and India (present Pakistan). Right from Bronze Age when man started building a better social organization, archaeology presents positive evidences for economic and technological cooperation to boost their living standards. In the case of Indian Sub-continent, the earlier rural evidences from Kili Gul Muhammad (Kili=Urdu word, stands for "Fort") , Zhob and Loralai valleys of Baluchistan show a continuous growth pattern until they reach to mature stage of Indus Civilization that presented by the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. It seems that such urban pattern could not develop without its deep contact with the Bronze Age Culture of Iran, as evidenced from the excavations of Bampur, Tepe Yahya, Tepe Sialk and Tepe Hissar. Hence, according to archaeological evidence, one can say the people of Iranian Plateau and those of its extension into Baluchistan and even in Sindh maintained a close trade and commercial relationship. In the beginning of the 4thMillennium B.C., trade spread simultaneously with the art of pottery and the human effort for having agricultural products, and commerce started between the Western and Eastern world. Barley and wheat from Iran were exported to Egypt and Europe, and millet from India was exported to the West via Iran. Plenty of seals and identical ornaments found in Iran and throughout the vast Indus Basin and the areas of Mesopotamia and Central Asia are evidences of the simultaneous expansion of trade in the Great Iranian Plateau. This article tries to discuss and prove that the gradual progress in this vast basin, especially in ancient sites of Iran and Western India could be possible through road links, such as Silk Road, and it strengthens the claim and leads to the point that this link has been solely through growing trade and commerce. The next point, it will express that this trade not only was responsible for the emergence of the stimuli for the development of simple and original settlement in a section of the proposed area but also developed cultural relations especially in the patterns of urbanization, architecture and arts which is highlighted in two ancient cities, Shahr-i Sokhta in Sistan (Iran) and Mohenjo-daro in Sindh (Pakistan), in 3rd Millennium B.C.
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Received: 2009/05/3 | Accepted: 2010/09/12 | Published: 2012/02/27

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